Resource Bibliography

DATE: September 6, 2017

AUTHOR: Aaron Fernandes

This section, compiled by Gail Coppage, includes resources for understanding different dimensions of postsecondary finance and the relationship between funding and student success in the current social and political context. Inclusion in this list does not necessarily represent an endorsement.

COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Arriaga, Alex. “In First College Visit, DeVos Praises Career Prep and Community Colleges.” The Chronicle for Higher Education. March 24, 2017. http://www.chronicle.com/blogs/ticker/in-first-college-visit-devos-praises-career-prep-and-community-colleges

Center for Urban Education. “Pathways, Partnerships and Progress: Transforming a Community College.” Center for Urban Education. 2013. http://cue.usc.edu/pathways-partnerships-report/

McCleney, Kay. “Community Colleges: Choosing Change.” Changemag.org. July-August, 2013.
http://www.changemag.org/Archives/Back%20Issues/2013/July-August%202013/community-full.html.

Mullin, Christopher M.; Baime, David S.; and Honeyman, David S. “Community College Finance: A Guide for Institutional Leaders.” Jossey-Bass Higher & Adult Education. March, 2015.
http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-1118954912.html.

Turk, Jonathan M., and Chen, Wei-Lin. “Improving the Odds: The Empirical Look at the Factors That Influence Upward Transfer.” American Council on Education, Center for Policy, Research and Strategy, and Hobsons. 2017.
http://www.acenet.edu/newsroom/Documents/Improving-the-Odds.pdf.

Waiwaiole, Evelyn. “Many Community College Students Say Schools Aren’t Giving Them the Help They Need to Navigate Financial Aid.” The Hechinger Report. April 11, 2017.
http://hechingerreport.org/opinion-many-community-college-students-say-schools-arent-giving-help-need-navigate-financial-aid-study-shows

Wilson, Korey. “NCC President Says Obama’s Free Community College Plan Can Be Beneficial.” The Hour.com. January 9, 2015. http://www.thehour.com/norwalk/article/NCC-president-says-Obama-s-free-community-college-8093439.php.

COMPLETION

Butrymowicz, Sarah. “Why Placing Students in Difficult High School Classes May Increase College Enrollment.” The Hechinger Report. March 11, 2017.
http://hechingerreport.org/placing-students-difficult-high-school-classes-may-increase-college-enrollment.

Carnoy, Martha and Garcia, Emma. “Five Key Trends in U.S. Student Performance.” Economic Policy Institute. January 12, 2017. http://www.epi.org/publication/five-key-trends-in-u-s-student-performance-progress-by-blacks-and-hispanics-the-takeoff-of-asians-the-stall-of-non-english-speakers-the-persistence-of-socioeconomic-gaps-and-the-damaging-effect/.

Cassuto, Leonard. “How to Cut Time to Degree.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. April 5, 2017.
http://www.chronicle.com/article/How-to-Cut-Time-to-Degree/239690.

The College Board. “2016 College Board Program Results.” The College Board. 2016.
https://www.collegeboard.org/program-results.

Complete College America. “Shared Principles for Boosting On-Time Graduation.” Complete College America. January, 2017. http://completecollege.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/15-to-Finish-Principles-for-NACADA-v.2.pdf.

Daugherty, Greg. “Good News for College Applicants: Getting In Is Easier Than They Think … Or Than Many Colleges and Universities Want Them to Know.” The Hechinger Report. March 8, 2017.
http://hechingerreport.org/good-news-for-college-applicants-getting-in-is-easier-than-they-think/.

Gordon, Larry. “California ‘Student Success” Initiative Slow to Increase Community College Completion Rates.” EdSource.org. April 2, 2017. https://edsource.org/2017/california-student-success-initiative-slow-to-increase-community-college-completion-rates/578257.

Harris, Elizabeth A. “CUNY to Revamp Remedial Programs, Hoping to Lift Graduation Rates.” The New York Times. March 19, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/19/nyregion/cuny-remedial-programs.html.

Herget, Alison. “Intrusive Academic Advising: A Proactive Approach to Student Success.” Higher Ed Jobs. January 9, 2017. https://www.higheredjobs.com/Articles/articleDisplay.cfm?ID=1153.

Kenkel, Mary. “New Policy Coalition Launches to Expand High-Quality College Options for High School Students.” Knowledgeworks.org. March 2, 2017.
http://www.knowledgeworks.org/new-policy-coalition-launches-expand-high-quality-college-options-high-school-students.

Kolodner, Meredith. “Eligible But Got Nothing: Hundreds of Thousands of People with Disabilities Blocked from College Aid.” The Hechinger Report. September 20, 2016.
http://hechingerreport.org/800000-people-disabilities-eligible-help-got-nothing.

Kolodner, Meredith. “Six Reasons You May Not Graduate on Time.” The Hechinger Report. April 6, 2017.
http://hechingerreport.org/six-reasons-may-not-graduate-time.

Kolodner, Meredith. “Under Pressure, Groups That Assess Colleges Promise to Take a Closer Look at Graduation Rates.” The Hechinger Report. September 21, 2016.
http://hechingerreport.org/pressure-groups-assess-colleges-promise-take-closer-look-graduation-rates/.

Marcus, Jon. “Placement Rates, Other Data Colleges Provide Consumers Are Often Alternative Facts.” The Hechinger Report. March 22, 2017. http://hechingerreport.org/placement-rates-data-colleges-provide-consumers-often-alternative-facts.

Marcus, Jon. “Polls: Americans Increasingly Mistrustful of College Costs, Leadership, and Value.” The Hechinger Report. November 7, 2016. http://hechingerreport.org/polls-americans-increasingly-mistrustful-college-costs-leadership-value/.

Morell, Ricki. “Will Changes in Online College Applications Help Students Chase the American Dream?” The Hechinger Report. December 9, 2016. http://hechingerreport.org/will-changes-online-college-applications-help-students-chase-american-dream.

National Commission on Higher Education Attainment. “An Open Letter to College & University Leaders: College Completion Must Be Our Priority.” National Commission on Higher Education Attainment. January, 2013.
https://www.acenet.edu/news-room/Documents/An-Open-Letter-to-College-and-University-Leaders.pdf.

National Student Clearinghouse Research Center. “Completing College: A National View of Student Attainment Rates—Fall 2010 Cohort (Signature Report 12).” National Student Clearinghouse Research Center. December 4, 2016.
https://nscresearchcenter.org/signaturereport12.

New, Jake. “Closing the Gap.” InsideHigherEd.com. March 1, 2017. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2017/03/01/national-completion-gap-race-one-third-larger-average-gap-institutions.

Perdue, Beverly E. and Wheelan, Pete. “The Uptapped Potential of Some College, No Degree.” The Hill. December 8, 2016. http://thehill.com/blogs/congress-blog/education/309394-the-untapped-potential-of-some-college-no-degree.

Pratt, Timothy. “Needing Students, Appalachian Colleges Reach Out to Fast-Growing Hispanic Population.” The Hechinger Report. September 14, 2016. http://hechingerreport.org/needing-students-appalachian-colleges-reach-out-to-fast-growing-hispanic-population.

Quillen, Carol; Wyner, Josh; and Kurzweil, Martin. “Closing the Stubborn College Graduation Gap Between Rich and Poor.” The Hechinger Report. December 12, 2017. http://hechingerreport.org/closing-the-stubborn-college-graduation-gap-between-rich-and-poor.

Shapiro, D., Dundar, A., Wakhungu, P.K., Yuan, X., Nathan, A., and Hwang, Y. “Time to Degree: A National View of the Time Enrolled and Elapsed for Associate and Bachelor’s Degree Earners (Signature Report No. 11).” National Student Clearinghouse Research Center. January, 2016.
https://nscresearchcenter.org/wp-content/uploads/SignatureReport11.pdf.

Willen, Liz. “Massachusetts Charter Pushes Low-Income Students to College with Coaching, Nagging and ‘Dream Crushing.’” The Hechinger Report. October 18, 2016.
http://hechingerreport.org/final-year-college-planning-unfolds-match-whats-gonna-take/.

Zinth, Jennifer. “Early College High Schools: Model Policy Components.” Education Commission of the States. September, 2016. http://www.ecs.org/ec-content/uploads/Early_College_High_Schools-__Model_policy_components.pdf.

COSTS

Akers, Beth; Dancy, Kim; and Delisle, Jason. “The Affordability Conundrum: Value, Price, and Choice in Higher Education Today.” ManhattanInstitute.org. April 12, 2017. https://www.manhattan-institute.org/html/affordability-conundrum-value-price-and-choice-higher-education-10185.html.

Associated Press. “Minnesota Lawmakers Consider Making Student Fees Optional.” Associated Press. April 20, 2017.
https://apnews.com/acca472415334ed097ae5bd0b1f298a0.

Association of Public and Land-Grant Universities. “How Much Do In-State Students Pay in Tuition and Fees to Attend Four-Year Public Universities?” Association of Public and Land-Grant Universities. http://www.aplu.org/projects-and-initiatives/college-costs-tuition-and-financial-aid/publicuvalues/publicuvalues-Q1.pdf.

Calder, Amy. “Alfond Foundation Will Pay College Debt of Those Who Commit to Maine-Based Companies.” Portland Press Herald. February 22, 2017. http://www.pressherald.com/2017/02/21/foundation-will-pay-college-debt-of-those-who-commit-to-maine-based-companies.

Colby, Laura. “Investors Think For-Profit Colleges Have a Bright Future Under Trump.” Bloomberg. February 14, 2017. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-02-14/un-ivy-league-goes-to-head-of-the-class-in-trump-s-washington.

Consumer Federation of America. “New Data: More than 1 Million Federal Student Loan Defaults in 2016”. Consumer Federation of America; Press Release. March 14, 2017.
http://consumerfed.org/press_release/new-data-1-1-million-federal-student-loan-defaults-2016/.

Davis Educational Foundation. “An Inquiry into the Rising Cost of Higher Education: Summary of Responses from Seventy College & University Presidents.” Davis Educational Foundation. November, 2012.
http://www.davisfoundations.org/site/documents/AnInquiryintotheRisingCostofHigherEducation.pdf.

Delisle, Kevin. “Putting a Number on Federal Education Spending.” The New York Times. February 27, 2013. http://economix.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/02/27/putting-a-number-on-federal-education-spending.

Dougal, Casey; Gao, Pengjie; Mayhew, William J.; and Parsons, Christopher. “What’s In a (School) Name? Racial Discrimination in Higher Education Bond Markets.” 6th Miami Behavioral Conference. September 21, 2016. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2727763.

Farmer, Liz. “The Real Price of College.” Governing. February 23, 2017. http://www.governing.com/topics/finance/gov-real-price-college-tax-breaks.html.

Fisher, Stacy B. “The California Community Colleges Board of Governors Fee Waiver: A Comparison of State Aid Programs.” California Community Colleges Chancellor’s Office. January 19, 2016. http://californiacommunitycolleges.cccco.edu/Portals/0/Reports/2016-CCCCO-BOG-FeeWaiver-Report-final.pdf.

Foderaro, Lisa W. “Free Tuition in New York Adds Powerful Pull at Decision Deadline.” The New York Times. April 30, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/30/nyregion/new-york-excelsior-scholarship-free-tuition.html.

Garcia Mathewson, Tara. “A Tough-to-Swallow Reason College Keeps Costing More: The price of Meal Plans.” The Hechinger Report. January 18, 2017. http://hechingerreport.org/tough-swallow-reason-college-keeps-costing-price-meal-plans.

Garland, Sarah. “A Mother and Son Go from Homeless to College.” The Hechinger Report. March 21, 2017. http://hechingerreport.org/a-mother-and-son-go-from-homeless-to-college.

Garrett, Richard. “Can U.S. and U.K. Higher Ed Systems Scale Up Higher Quality and Cost Efficient Education?” The Hechinger Report. June 23, 2016. http://hechingerreport.org/can-u-s-u-k-higher-ed-systems-scale-higher-quality-cost-efficient-education/.

Ginsberg, Benjamin. “Administrators Ate my Tuition.” Washington Monthly. September/October, 2011. http://washingtonmonthly.com/magazine/septoct-2011/administrators-ate-my-tuition.

Guzman-Lopez, Adolfo. “ITT Tech Closure Could Turn into ‘Housing Crisis’ for Veterans.” 89.3 KPCC. September 19, 2016. http://www.scpr.org/news/2016/09/19/64802/itt-tech-closure-could-turn-into-housing-crisis-fo/.

Heller, Donald E. “Why Gov. Cuomo’s Free Tuition Plan Won’t Help New York’s State of Mind.” The Hechinger Report. January 4, 2017. http://hechingerreport.org/gov-cuomos-free-tuition-plan-wont-help-new-yorks-state-mind.

Jaschik, Scott. “New York Adopts Free Tuition.” InsideHigherEd.com. April 10, 2017. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2017/04/10/new-york-state-reaches-deal-provide-free-tuition-suny-and-cuny-students.

Katzman, John. “Why Are Colleges and Universities Handing Over More Than Half of Their Tuition to Online Program Managers?” The Hechinger Report. December 26, 2016.
http://hechingerreport.org/colleges-universities-handing-half-tuition-online-program-managers.

Krupnick, Matt. “How the Immigration Controversy Could Drive Up the Cost of College.” The Hechinger Report. February 9, 2017. http://hechingerreport.org/immigration-controversy-drive-cost-college.

Marcus, Jon. “Colleges Are Pushed to Stand Behind What They Sell with Money-Back Guarantees.” The Hechinger Report. January 19, 2017. http://hechingerreport.org/colleges-pushed-stand-behind-sell-money-back-guarantees.

Marcus, Jon. “Consumers Get More Information About a Purchase They Made on Trust: College.” The Hechinger Report. July 22, 2016. http://hechingerreport.org/consumers-get-more-information-about-a-purchase-they-once-made-on-trust-college.

Marcus, Jon. “Free College Didn’t Die with the Clinton Campaign. It’s Just Getting Started.” The Hechinger Report. March 23, 2017. http://hechingerreport.org/free-college-didnt-die-clinton-campaign-just-getting-started.

Marcus, Jon. “In One Country, Anger Over Soaring College Costs Has Led to Violent Protests.” The Hechinger Report. March 8, 2017. http://hechingerreport.org/south-african-students-take-lead-protests-college-costs-equity.

Marcus, Jon. “Long-Neglected Maintenance Threatens to Further Escalate the Cost of College.” The Hechinger Report. July 25, 2016. http://hechingerreport.org/long-neglected-maintenance-threatens-to-further-escalate-the-cost-of-college/.

Marcus, Jon. “Students, Feeling Nickel-and-Dimed, Force New Scrutiny of College Fees.” The Hechinger Report. January 3, 2017.
http://hechingerreport.org/students-feeling-nickel-and-dimed-force-new-scrutiny-of-college-fees.

Marcus, Jon. “Study: Fast-Rising Room and Board Costs Worsen College Affordability Problem.” The Hechinger Report. January 31, 2017. http://hechingerreport.org/study-fast-rising-room-board-costs-worsen-college-affordability-problem.

Mongeau, Lillian. “Idaho Gives Education Money Directly to Teenagers to Manage Themselves.” The Hechinger Report. April 6, 2017. http://hechingerreport.org/idaho-gives-education-money-directly-teenagers-manage.

Murphy, Richard J.; Scott-Clayton, Judith; and Wyness, Gillian. “Lessons from the End of Free College in England.” Brookings. April 27, 2017. https://www.brookings.edu/research/lessons-from-the-end-of-free-college-in-england/.

Oliff, Phillip. “How Governments Support Higher Education Through the Tax Code.” Pew Charitable Trusts. February 22, 2017. http://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/reports/2017/02/how-governments-support-higher-education-through-the-tax-code.

Perry, Andre. “Dear Mr. Governor: How You Can Help Poor Kids in Louisiana Go to College.” The Hechinger Report. April 4, 2017. http://hechingerreport.org/dear-mr-governor-how-you-can-help-poor-kids-in-louisiana-go-to-college.

Poutre, Alain; Rorison, Jamey; and Voight, Mamie. “Limited Means, Limited Options: College Remains Unaffordable for Many Americans.” Institute for Higher Education Policy. March, 2017.
http://www.ihep.org/limited-means-limited-options.

Quintana, Chris. “Here’s a Map of ‘Free College Programs’ Nationwide.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. March 29, 2017. http://www.chronicle.com/blogs/ticker/heres-a-map-of-free-college-programs-nationwide.

Schmidt, Peter. “Is Tuition Discounting Leading Some Colleges Off a Cliff?” The Chronicle of Higher Education. April 28, 2017. http://www.chronicle.com/article/Is-Tuition-Discounting-Leading/239943.

Scott-Clayton, Judith. “As Cuomo Proposal Rekindles Free College Movement, New Research Provides Ammunition for Skeptics.” Brookings. January 19, 2017. https://www.brookings.edu/research/as-cuomo-proposal-rekindles-free-college-movement-new-research-provides-ammunition-for-skeptics/.

U.S. Department of Education. “America’s College Promise Playbook.” U.S. Department of Education. October, 2016. http://www2.ed.gov/documents/press-releases/college-promise-playbook.pdf.

Usher, Alex. “The Free Tuition Impulse.” Higher Education Strategy Associates. March 14, 2017.
http://higheredstrategy.com/the-free-tuition-impulse/.

Westervelt, Eric. “Shaken by Economic Change, ‘Non-Traditional’ Students are Becoming the New Normal.” NPRED. September 25, 2016. http://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2016/09/25/495188445/shaken-by-economic-change-non-traditional-students-are-becoming-the-new-normal.

Zamudio-Suaréz, Fernanda. “New York Governor Announces Free-College Plan.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. January3, 2017. http://www.chronicle.com/blogs/ticker/new-york-governor-announces-free-college-plan.

Zamudio-Suaréz, Fernanda. “Optional Student Fees? In Wisconsin, Students are Divided on the Idea.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. February 27, 2017. http://www.chronicle.com/article/Optional-Student-Fees-In/239333.

ELECTION-RELATED ARTICLES/CABINET APPOINTMENTS

Berrett, Dan; Brown, Sarah; Kelderman, Eric; Read, Brock; and Zamudio-Suaréz, Fernanda. “What Does Betsy DeVos Have in Mind for Higher Education?” The Chronicle of Higher Education. November 23, 2016. http://www.chronicle.com/article/What-Does-Betsy-DeVos-Have-in/238514.

Carey, Kevin. “Colleges’ Realities May Curtail DeVos’s Agenda.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. November 28, 2016. http://www.chronicle.com/article/Colleges-Realities-May/238517.

Center for Education Reform. “First 100 Days: The Path to Going Bold on Education Innovation & Opportunity.” Center for Education Reform. January, 2017.
https://www.edreform.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/First100Days.pdf

Chapra, Rohit. “Sallie Mae’s Stock Has Soured Since the Election. But Will Donald Trump Really Deliver?” The Washington Post. January 9, 2017. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/grade-point/wp/2017/01/09/sallie-maes-stock-has-soared-since-the-election-but-will-donald-trump-really-deliver.

The Chronicle of Higher Education. “Special Report: Donald Trump and Higher Ed.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. May 23, 2016. http://www.chronicle.com/specialreport/Donald-TrumpHigher-Ed/40.

The Chronicle of Higher Education. “What Trump’s Budget Outline Would Mean for Higher Ed.” The Chronicle for Higher Education. March 16, 2017. http://www.chronicle.com/article/What-Trump-s-Budget-Outline/239511.

Domitrovic, Brian. “How Trump Could Spark a Renaissance in Higher Education.” The Chronicle for Higher Education. November 16, 2016. http://www.chronicle.com/article/How-Trump-Could-Spark-a/238437.

Farish, Donald J. “The Specific Threats Now Facing Higher Education.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. November 15, 2016. http://www.chronicle.com/article/The-Specific-Threats-Now/238407.

Garcia, Joe, and Serrata, William. “Meeting the Challenge of Demographic Change.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. December 6, 2016. http://www.chronicle.com/article/Meeting-the-Challenge-of/238582.

Gayle, Caleb. “Don’t Spend More, Foundations—It Will Advance Trump’s Agenda.” The Chronicle of Philanthropy. December 29, 2016. https://www.philanthropy.com/article/Opinion-Foundations-Don-t/238764.

Harris, Adam. “Here’s Every Major Statement Trump and DeVos Have Made on Higher Education.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. March 3, 2017. http://www.chronicle.com/article/Heres-Every-Major-Statement/239398.

Heller, Donald. “Expect DeVos to Apply Her Free-Market Outlook to Colleges.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. November. 28, 2016. http://www.chronicle.com/article/Expect-DeVos-to-Apply-Her/238516.

The Institute for College Access & Success. “Memo to President Elect.” The Institute for College Access & Success. December 16, 2016. http://www.ticas.org/sites/default/files/pub_files/ticas_transition_memo_to_president.pdf.

Le, Vu. “In the Trump Era, Nonprofits Need a New Social Contract with Foundations.” The Chronicle of Philanthropy. November 14, 2016. https://www.philanthropy.com/article/Opinion-In-the-Trump-Era/238408.

National Skills Coalition. “Skills for Good Jobs: An Agenda for the Next President.” National Skills Coalition. November, 2016. http://www.nationalskillscoalition.org/resources/publications/file/Skills-for-Good-Jobs-Agenda.pdf.

Shireman, Robert. “Filling in the Details of Trump’s Student Loan Plan.” The Century Foundation. December 12, 2016. https://tcf.org/content/facts/filling-details-trump-student-loan-plan.

Smarick, Andy. “How Will the Trump Administration Build an Education Agenda?” LinkedIn. December 3, 2016. https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/how-trump-administration-build-education-agenda-andy-smarick.

Stripling, Jack. “For Jittery Academics, Trump’s Education Transition Chief May Bring Calm.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. November 22, 2016. http://www.chronicle.com/article/For-Jittery-Academics/238473.

Supiano, Beckie. “A Closer Look at Income-Based Repayment, The Centerpiece of Donald Trump’s Unexpected Higher-Ed Speech.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. October 15, 2016. http://www.chronicle.com/article/A-Closer-Look-at-Income-Based/238085.

Usher, Alex. “American Higher Education Under Trump.” Higher Education Strategy Associates. January 19, 2017. http://higheredstrategy.com/american-higher-education-under-trump.

Zamudio-Suaréz, Fernanda. “How to Talk about Higher Ed Around the Thanksgiving Table: A Brief Guide.” The Chronicle for Higher Education. November 23, 2016. http://www.chronicle.com/article/How-to-Talk-About-Higher-Ed/238485.

FINANCIAL AID

Angrist, Josh; Autor, David; Hudson, Sally; and Pallais, Amanda. “Leveling Up: Early Results from a Randomized Evaluation of Post-Secondary Aid.” Harvard University and NBER. January 9, 2015. http://economics.mit.edu/files/10366.

Associated Press. “Colleges Lavishing More Financial Aid on Wealthy Students.” Associated Press. September 27, 2016. https://apnews.com/d4dd5acc3b574cc4afb159bd8ad6b86b/Colleges-lavishing-more-financial-aid-on-wealthy-students.

Baum, Sandy, and Johnson, Martha. “Strengthening Federal Student Aid: Reforming Education Tax Credits and Deductions.” Urban Institute. February, 2016. http://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/alfresco/publication-pdfs/2000598-Strengthening-Federal-Student-Aid-Reforming-Education-Tax-Credits-and-Deductions.pdf.

Baum, Sandy, and Schwartz, Saul. “Student Aid, Student Behavior, and Educational Attainment.” Umdcipe.org. September, 2014. http://www.umdcipe.org/conferences/DecliningMiddleClassesSpain/Papers/Baum.pdf.

Burd, Stephen. “The Troubling Use of ‘Merit Aid’ at Public Flagship and Research Universities.” The Hechinger Report. April 27, 2016. http://hechingerreport.org/troubling-use-merit-aid-public-flagships-research-universities.

Douglass, Regan. “Investing in Financial Aid Literacy and Access.” College Futures Foundation.
April 6, 2016. https://collegefutures.org/2016/04/investing-financial-aid-literacy-access.

Dynarski, Susan, and Scott-Clayton, Judith. “Financial Aid Policy: Lessons from Research.” The Future of Children. Spring, 2013. http://muse.jhu.edu/article/508221.

Kreighbaum, Andrew. “Welfare Funds for Students Far from Welfare.” Inside Higher Ed. October 18, 2016. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2016/10/18/michigans-use-welfare-funds-private-college-tuition-grants-gets-new-scrutiny.

Levinson, David. “Grand Solution or Grab Bag?” The American Prospect. October 22, 2009.
http://prospect.org/authors/david-levinson.

National College Access Network. “Half the FAFSA: Cutting the Red Tape to Postsecondary Student Aid.” National College Access Network. November 11, 2016. http://www.collegeaccess.org/fixfafsa.

Shireman, Robert. “What Does the Gainful Employment Rule Mean for Career Schools Seeking Access to Federal Aid?” The Century Foundation. March 27, 2017. https://tcf.org/content/facts/gainful-employment-rule-mean-career-schools-seeking-access-federal-aid.

U.S. Congress. “To Reauthorize the Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Act of 2006.” 114th Congress, 2D Session. H.R. 5587. June 28, 2016. http://docs.house.gov/billsthisweek/20160912/H5587-2.pdf.

Usher, Alex. “What’s Next for Student Aid.” Higher Education Strategy Associates. March 30, 2017. http://higheredstrategy.com/whats-next-for-student-aid-2.

Zamudio-Suaréz, Fernanda. “Here Are the Programs that Failed the Gainful-Employment Rule.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. January 9, 2017. http://www.chronicle.com/article/Here-Are-the-Programs-That/238851.

FUNDRAISING AND PHILANTHROPY

Baccheti, Roy and Ehrlich, Thomas. “Reconnecting Education & Foundations: Turning Good Intention into Educational Capital.” The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. September, 2005. http://archive.carnegiefoundation.org/pdfs/elibrary/elibrary_pdf_631.pdf.

Blumenstyk, Goldie. “USA Funds Moves to Further Focus on Education Philanthropy and Investing.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. December 7, 2016. http://www.chronicle.com/blogs/ticker/usa-funds-moves-to-further-focus-on-education-philanthropy-and-investing/116015.

The Chronicle of Higher Education. “Major Private Gifts to Higher Education.” May 12, 2016.
http://chronicle.com/article/Major-Private-Gifts-to-Higher/128264/.

The Chronicle of Philanthropy. “Falling Out Over Fundraising Wracks Small PA College.” August 1, 2016. https://www.philanthropy.com/article/Falling-Out-Over-Fundraising/237324.

Chung, Juliet and Lim, Dawn. “Harvard Endowment to Lay off Half Its Staff.” The Wall Street Journal. January 25, 2017. https://www.wsj.com/articles/harvard-to-outsource-management-of-its-35-7-billion-endowment-1485363650.

Eaton, Charlie. “How Colleges Lost Billions to Hedge Funds in 2016.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. February 20, 2017. http://www.chronicle.com/article/How-Colleges-Lost-Billions-to/239245.

Goldgeier, James; Jentleson, Bruce; Trisko Darden, Jessica; and Weber, Steven. “Why Universities and Foundations Should Get Together Sooner.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. April 9, 2017. http://www.chronicle.com/article/Why-Universities-and/239721.

Koenig, Rebecca. “U.S. Colleges Raise $40 Billion; Stanford Tops List at $1.6 Billion.” The Chronicle of Philanthropy. January 27, 2016. https://www.philanthropy.com/article/US-Colleges-Raise-40/235059/.

Lang, James M. “Small Changes or Big Revolutions?” Advice: The Chronicle of Higher Education. June 19, 2016. http://chronicle.com/article/Small-Changes-or-Big/236839/.

Lindsay, Drew. “Higher Education ‘s Megagift Boom Hits New High, Survey Shows.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. April 3, 2017. https://www.philanthropy.com/article/Higher-Education-s-Megagift/239684.

Lorin, Janet. “Rich College Donors’ Big Tax Break Is Suddenly in Danger.” Bloomberg.com. January 5, 2017. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-01-05/for-rich-college-donors-a-favorite-tax-break-is-now-in-danger.

Michigan State University, Corporate Foundation Research. “Current Trends in National Foundation Funding for Education with a Focus on Ten National Foundations.” October, 17 2013. https://education.msu.edu/irtl/pdf/Trends%20in%20National%20Foundation%20Funding%20for%20Education%202013.pdf.

Mosher-Williams, R.; Brenner, S.; and Celep, A. “It’s Not Foundation Money But Culture and Talent That Can Change the World.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. February 10, 2016. https://philanthropy.com/article/Opinion-It-s-Not-Foundation/235257.

Schaeffer, Katherine. “Shaking the Foundation: Fighting for Access to University Non-Profit Foundations.” Student Press Law Center. September 29, 2015. http://www.splc.org/article/2015/09/shaking-the-foundation.

ALTERNATIVES FOR FUNDING HIGHER EDUCATION

Barrett, Ben. “Strengthening the Partnership: A Survey of Proposed Higher Education Funding Solutions.” New America. April 8, 2016. https://www.newamerica.org/education-policy/policy-papers/strengthening-the-partnership/.

Bromund, Ted. “Blame Washington for Skyrocketed College Costs.” The Heritage Foundation. January 21, 2016. http://www.heritage.org/research/commentary/2016/1/blame-washington-for-skyrocketed-college-costs.

Butler, Stuart M. “The Coming Higher-Ed Revolution.” Commentary on Higher Education. The Heritage Foundation. January 13, 2012. http://www.heritage.org/research/commentary/2012/01/the-coming-higher-ed-revolution.

Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment. “For Profit Colleges by the Numbers.” January, 2017. http://capseecenter.org/research/by-the-numbers/for-profit-college-infographic/.

The Chronicle of Higher Education. “Tuition and Fees, 1998-99 Through 2016-17.” October 26, 2016. http://www.chronicle.com/interactives/tuition-and-fees.

Douglas-Gabriel, Danielle. “D.C. Would Have More Oversight Over Student Loan Debt Collectors Under Council Proposal.” The Washington Post. September 20, 2016. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/grade-point/wp/2016/09/20/d-c-would-have-more-oversight-over-student-loan-debt-collectors-under-council-proposal/.

Gardner, Lee. “A Public University Mends Fences with Its State.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. March 23, 2017. http://www.chronicle.com/article/A-Public-University-Mends/239570.

Garland, James C. Saving Alma Mater: A Rescue Plan for America’s Public Universities. University of Chicago Press. 2009.

Harris. Adam. “Moody’s Calls Trump’s Proposed Budget Cuts a Credit Negative for Higher Ed.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. March 28, 2017. http://www.chronicle.com/blogs/ticker/moodys-calls-trumps-proposed-budget-cuts-a-credit-negative-for-higher-ed/117465.

Hillman, Nicholas. “Why Performance-Based Funding Doesn’t Work.” The Century Foundation. May 25, 2016. https://tcf.org/content/report/why-performance-based-college-funding-doesnt-work/.

Huh, Kil. “State Finances Still in the Red, Even Though the Economy Is Growing.” Marketwatch. March 20, 2017. http://www.marketwatch.com/story/even-as-the-economy-recovers-most-state-finances-are-still-in-the-red-2017-03-20.

Johnstone, D. Bruce and Marcucci, Pamela. Financing Higher Education: Who Pays? Who Should Pay? John Hopkins University Press. 2010.

Kahlenberg, Richard D. “How Higher Education Funding Shortchanges Community Colleges.” The Century Foundation. May 28, 2015. https://tcf.org/content/report/how-higher-education-funding-shortchanges-community-colleges/.

McGowan, Dan. “12 Key Things to know about Governor Raimondo’s Free College Plan.” WPRI. January 16, 2017. http://wpri.com/2017/01/16/12-key-things-to-know-about-gov-raimondos-free-college-plan/.

Mellow, Gail. “In the Heart of the Big Apple, a College’s President and Students Laud Free Tuition Proposal.” The Hechinger Report. January 12, 2017. http://hechingerreport.org/heart-big-apple-colleges-president-students-laud-free-tuition-proposal/.

Miao, Kysie. “Performance-Based Funding of Higher Education: A Detailed Look at Best Practices in 6 States.” Center for American Progress. August 7, 2012. https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/education/reports/2012/08/07/12036/performance-based-funding-of-higher-education/.

Miller, Harold. “The Building Blocks of Successful Payment Reform: Designing Payment Systems that Support Higher-Value Health Care.” Network for Regional Healthcare Improvement. April 2015. http://www.chqpr.org/downloads/BuildingBlocksofSuccessfulPaymentReform.pdf.

National Association of State Budget Officers. “A Guidebook on State Budgeting for Higher Education.” 2015. http://budgetblog.nasbo.org/budgetblogs/reports-data/higher-education-reports/higher-ed-guidebook.

Nevada System of Higher Education. “New Model for Funding Higher Education in Nevada.” November 11, 2016. http://system.nevada.edu/tasks/sites/Nshe/assets/File/Initiatives/fundingformula/Funding%20Model%20Summary%20Revised_8_12.pdf.

Oliff, Phillip; Robyn, Mark; and Theiss, Rebecca. “Federal Support for Higher Education Comes from Spending Programs and the Tax Code.” The Pew Charitable Trusts. March 7, 2017.
http://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/analysis/2017/03/07/federal-support-for-higher-education-comes-from-spending-programs-and-the-tax-code.

Partnership for Higher Education in Africa; The Carnegie Corporation. “Lessons from a Ten-Year Funders Collaborative: A Case Study of the Partnership for Higher Education in Africa.” 2010. http://www.foundation-partnership.org/pubs/pdf/phea_case_study.pdf.

Usher, Alex. “The Free Tuition Impulse.” Higher Education Strategy Associates. March 14, 2017.
http://higheredstrategy.com/the-free-tuition-impulse/.

Usher, Alex. “How International Tuition Fees Keep Canadian Universities Afloat.” Higher Education Strategy Associates. December 12, 2016. http://higheredstrategy.com/how-international-tuition-fees-keep-canadian-universities-afloat/.

Usher, Alex. “More on International Fees in Canadian Universities.” Higher Education Strategy Associates. December 14, 2016. http://higheredstrategy.com/more-on-international-fees-in-canadian-universities/.

Wellman, Jane. “The Higher Education Funding Disconnect: Spending Now, Getting Less.” Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning. November-December, 2008.
http://www.changemag.org/Archives/Back%20Issues/November-December%202008/full-funding-disconnect.html.

Wolfston, Jim. “College Admissions Favor the Rich. Let’s Turn It Around Before Taxpayer-Funded Tuition Relief Becomes Another Handout.” The Hechinger Report. July 5, 2016.
http://hechingerreport.org/college-admissions-favor-rich-lets-turn-around-taxpayer-funded-tuition-relief-becomes-another-handout-wealthy/.

BILL & MELINDA GATES FOUNDATION

Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. “The Frontier Set – Fact Sheet.” Spring, 2017. http://postsecondary.gatesfoundation.org/frontier-set-fact-sheet/.

Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. “Gates Foundation Announces New Agenda for Higher Education Advocacy.” March 3, 2015. http://philanthropynewsdigest.org/news/gates-foundation-announces-new-agenda-for-higher-education-advocacy.

Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. “Institutional Partnerships.” Spring, 2017. http://postsecondary.gatesfoundation.org/areas-of-focus/networks/institutional-partnerships/.

Greenstein, Dan. “Bridging Higher Education’s Rhetoric and Reality in a Changing World.” Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. December 13, 2016. http://postsecondary.gatesfoundation.org/directors-message/bridging-higher-educations-rhetoric-reality-changing-world/.

HIGHER EDUCATION ACT

Burke, Lindsey. “Pertinent Issues Surrounding Reauthorization of the Higher Education Act.” Testimony on Education before the Committee on Education and the Workforce, United States House of Representatives. March 3, 2016. http://www.heritage.org/research/testimony/pertinent-issues-surrounding-reauthorization-of-the-higher-education-act.

Richburg-Hayes, LaShawn. “Reauthorizing the Higher Education Act: Opportunities to Improve Student Success.” Testimony before the U.S. Senate Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Committee. August 5, 2015. http://www.mdrc.org/sites/default/files/Richburg-Hayes_Senate_HELP_8-17-15.pdf.

HIGHER EDUCATION INNOVATION/POLICY

Akers, Beth. “Ideas for the New Administration: Five Reforms to Improve Higher Ed.” Manhattan Institute. January 17, 2017. https://www.manhattan-institute.org/html/ideas-new-administration-five-reforms-improve-higher-ed-9915.html.

Benoit, Anthony. “As More Americans Retire, We Must Educate a New Generation of Leaders by Making Higher Education Affordable.” The Hechinger Report. December 27, 2016. http://hechingerreport.org/americans-retire-must-educate-new-generation-leaders-making-higher-ed-affordable/.

Blumenstyk, Goldie. “Jerry Falwell Jr. Says He Will Lead Federal Task Force on Higher Ed Policy.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. January 31, 2017. http://www.chronicle.com/article/Jerry-Falwell-Jr-Says-He-Will/239062.

Blumenstyk, Goldie. “Jerry Falwell’s New Higher Ed Task Force Could Take Lessons from a Private College Association’s Playbook.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. February 1, 2017. http://www.chronicle.com/article/Jerry-Falwell-s-New/239080.

Campaign for Free College Tuition. “Making Public Colleges Tuition Free: A Briefing Book for State Leaders.” 2016. http://d3n8a8pro7vhmx.cloudfront.net/themes/5734e55178b8e29a74000001/attachments/original/1481562117/CFCT_BriefingBook_2016.pdf?1481562117.

College Futures Foundation. “Securing the Public Trust: Practical Steps toward Higher Education Finance Reform in California.” February 2, 2017. https://higheredfinance.org/cf-content/uploads/Securing_Public_Trust_REPORT_Jan2017.pdf.

Complete Tennessee. “Room to Grow: The State of Higher Education in Tennessee” 2016. https://static1.squarespace.com/static/56cf531db6aa6036fa14e1f8/t/583de4556a49631ee36f01e9/1480451910074/state-of-higher-education.

Delaney, Tim and Thompson, David L. “Nonprofits Need to Stand Together to Push for Smart Public Policies.” The Chronicle for Higher Education. January 4, 2017. https://www.philanthropy.com/article/Opinion-Nonprofits-Need-to/238802.

Dube, Sara and White, Darcy. “Washington State Leads in Evidence-Based Policymaking.” The Pew Charitable Trusts. February 7, 2017. http://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/analysis/2017/02/07/washington-state-leads-in-evidence-based-policymaking.

Education Commission of the States. “State-Federal Partnerships in Postsecondary Education [Series].” http://www.ecs.org/initiatives/state-federal-partnerships/.

Hiltonsmith, Robert. “Small Loans, Big Risks: Major Consequences for Student Debtors.” January 10, 2017. http://www.demos.org/publication/small-loans-big-risks-major-consequences-student-debtors.

Hoover, Eric. “What Trump’s Supreme Court Choice Might Mean for Higher Ed.” The Chronicle for Higher Education. February 17, 2017. http://www.chronicle.com/article/What-Trump-s-Supreme-Court/239066.

The Kauffman Foundation. “U.S. Colleges & Universities must take Entrepreneurial Approaches to Overcome Challenges.” June 7, 2012. http://www.kauffman.org/newsroom/2013/04/us-colleges-and-universities-must-take-entrepreneurial-approach-to-overcome-challenges-according-to-kauffman-foundation-report.

Kaufman, Peter B. “In the Post-Truth Era, Colleges Must Share Their Knowledge.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. April 2, 2017. http://www.chronicle.com/article/In-the-Post-Truth-Era/239628.

King, John and South, Joseph. “Reimagining the Role of Technology in Higher Education: A Supplement to the National Education Technology Plan.” U.S. Department of Education. January, 2017. http://static.politico.com/20/ac/688279f247f695c1ea2c37063fc8/obama-administration-outlines-recommendations-for-using-technology-in-higher-education.05%5B1%5D%20copy.pdf.

Marcus, Jon. “Policies to Help Students Pay for College Continue to Shift Toward Favoring the Rich.” The Hechinger Report. May 24, 2016. http://hechingerreport.org/policies-help-students-pay-college-continue-shift-toward-favoring-rich/.

Megan, Kenneth; Akabas, Shai; and Varn, Jake. “Higher Education Trends: Rising Costs, Stagnant Outcomes, State Initiatives.” Bipartisan Policy Center. March, 2017. https://cdn.bipartisanpolicy.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/BPC-Higher-Education-Rising-Costs-Stagnant-Outcomes.pdf.

Mitchell, Ted. “Remarks of U.S. Under Secretary Ted Mitchell.” Northeastern University. January 12, 2017. http://static.politico.com/ee/3e/285b8ddf4eceae0dd61a3e3d818a/excerpts-of-undersecretary-of-education-ted-mitchells-final-speech.pdf.

Palmer, Susan. “Insights and Observations about Collaboration.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. March 26, 2017. http://www.chronicle.com/article/InsightsObservations/239584.

Parent Coalition for Student Privacy. “Memo to the Commission on Evidence-Based Policymaking.” November 14, 2016. http://www.studentprivacymatters.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/letter-to-CEP-w-signers-final-11.14.16-pdf.pdf.

The Pew Charitable Trusts. “Key Findings from 50-State Assessment of Evidence-Based Policy-Making.” January 31, 2017. http://www.routefifty.com/2017/01/key-findings-50-state-assessment-evidence-based-policymaking/135042/.

Salmi, Jamil. “Are Excellence Initiatives Working?” Inside Higher Ed. July 12, 2016.
https://www.insidehighered.com/blogs/world-view/are-excellence-initiatives-working.

Seymour, Daniel. “Higher Education Has Lost Control of Its Own Narrative.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. November 6, 2016. http://www.chronicle.com/article/Higher-Education-Has-Lost/238321.

Silva, Elena; White, Taylor; and Toch, Thomas. “The Carnegie Unit: A Century-Old Standard in a Changing Education Landscape.” Lumina Foundation. January, 2015. https://www.luminafoundation.org/files/resources/carnegie-unit-report.pdf.

Snyder, Martha and Fox, Brian. “Driving Better Outcomes: Principles to Inform Higher Education Policy.” HCM Strategists. 2015. http://hcmstrategists.com/drivingoutcomes/report/.

Stafford, John. “The Paradoxes of Higher Ed Funding in Washington State.” South Seattle Emerald. February 5, 2015. https://southseattleemerald.com/2015/02/05/the-paradoxes-of-higher-ed-funding-in-washington-state/.

Stanley, Jeff; Conklin, Kristen D.; Snyder, Martha; and Boelscher, Scott. “Rowing Together: Aligning State and Federal Investments in Talent to Common Outcomes.” Education Commission of the States. December, 2016. http://www.ecs.org/ec-content/uploads/ECS_FundingReports_HCM_F.pdf.

Sullivan, Laura; Meschede, Tatjana; Shapiro, Thomas; Asante-Muhammed, Detrick; and Nieves, Emanuel. “Equitable Investments in the Next Generation: Designing Policies to Close the Racial Wealth Gap.” CFED. December, 2016. https://prosperitynow.org/files/resources/IASP_CFED_Equitable_Investments_in_the_Next_Generation-FINAL.pdf.

Usher, Alex. “Good Innovation Policy.” Higher Education Strategy Associates. March 16, 2017.
http://higheredstrategy.com/good-innovation-policy/.

Usher, Alex. “What is Innovation/Innovation Policy Anyway?” Higher Education Strategy Associates. March 15, 2017. http://higheredstrategy.com/what-is-innovationinnovation-policy-anyway/.

Weeby, Jason; Robson, Kelly; and Mu, George. “The U.S. Education Innovation Index: Prototype and Report.” Bellweather Education Partners. September 21, 2016. http://bellwethereducation.org/publication/us-education-innovation-index-prototype-and-report.

Wong, Alia; Green, Adrienne; and Zhou, Li. “What iIs the Future of Higher Education?” The Atlantic. December 30, 2015. http://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2015/12/hope-despair-higher-education/421803/.

Zalaznick, Matt. “Higher Ed Leaders Forecast Top 2017 Trends.” University Business. January.4, 2017. https://www.universitybusiness.com/article/higher-ed-leaders-forecast-top-2017-trends-0.

INSTITUTION FINANCES

Clark, Kim. “Higher Education Finance.” Education Writers Association. June, 2012. http://www.ewa.org/higher-education-finance.

Hinrichs, Peter L. “Trends in Revenues at U.S. Colleges and Universities.” Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland. March 23, 2017. https://www.clevelandfed.org/en/newsroom-and-events/publications/economic-commentary/2017-economic-commentaries/ec-201705-trends-in-revenues-at-us-colleges-and-universities-1987-2013.aspx.

Marcus, Jon. “Budget Cuts are Taking the Heaviest Toll on Colleges That Serve the Neediest Students.” The Hechinger Report. January 3, 2017. http://hechingerreport.org/budget-cuts-are-taking-the-heaviest-toll-on-colleges-that-serve-the-neediest-students.

Quintana, Chris. “The Next Higher Ed Funding Battle to Watch May Be in New Mexico.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. April 19, 2017. http://www.chronicle.com/article/The-Next-Higher-Ed-Funding/239826.

Usher, Alex. “Diverse Sacrifices, Diverse Stewards, Diverse Policies.” Higher Education Strategy Associates. May 4, 2016. http://campaign.r20.constantcontact.com/render?m=1103080520043&ca=9e20ea09-1059-4a62-bff2-a3058d5ea617.

Usher, Alex. “How Rich are China’s Universities?” Higher Education Strategy Associates. May 17, 2016. http://campaign.r20.constantcontact.com/render?m=1103080520043&ca=00fd6ac9-f4a7-4158-b051-cc5371fde792.

Usher, Alex. “How to Fund (1).” Higher Education Strategy Associates. February 14, 2017. http://higheredstrategy.com/how-to-fund-1/.

Usher, Alex. “How to Fund (2).” Higher Education Strategy Associates. February 15, 2017.
http://higheredstrategy.com/how-to-fund-2/.

Usher, Alex. “How to Fund (3).” Higher Education Strategy Associates. February 16, 2017. http://higheredstrategy.com/how-to-fund-3/.

Usher, Alex. “The New-Brunswick Step-Function.” Higher Education Strategy Associates. May 16, 2016. http://campaign.r20.constantcontact.com/render?m=1103080520043&ca=253ea328-8475-4462-8a9d-a6ec8e0dc69e.

Usher, Alex. “What Ottawa Spends.” Higher Education Strategy Associates. May 6, 2016. http://campaign.r20.constantcontact.com/render?m=1103080520043&ca=8560acb4-0902-41b5-9307-d0587dd6715a.

Zinshteyn, Mikhail. “Financial Aid ‘Arms War’ Continues to Drain Cash from Colleges.” The Hechinger Report. May 16, 2016. http://hechingerreport.org/financial-aid-arms-war-continues-drain-cash-colleges/.

Zinshteyn, Mikhail. “Finance Expert Tells Colleges: Take a Fine-Toothed Comb to Your Budgets.” The Hechinger Report. January 14, 2016. http://hechingerreport.org/finance-expert-tells-colleges-take-a-fine-toothed-comb-to-your-budgets/.

RELATED WORK BY NATE JOHNSON

Baum, Sandy; Conklin, Kristin; and Johnson, Nate. “Stop Penalizing Poor College Students.” The New York Times. November 12, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/13/opinion/stop-penalizing-poor-college-students.html.

Johnson, Nate. “Aligning Student and Institution Incentives in Higher Education Finance.” Lumina Foundation. June, 2016. http://10851-presscdn-0-44.pagely.netdna-cdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/aligning-student-and-institutional-incentives-full-1.pdf.

Johnson, Nate. “The Limits of Institutional Measures for Assessing State, Regional, and National Postsecondary Productivity.” TIAA Institute; NACUBO. July, 2016. https://www.tiaainstitute.org/sites/default/files/presentations/2017-02/institute_series_limits_of_institutional_measures.pdf.

Johnson, Nate. “Three Policies to Reduce Time to Degree.” Complete College America. February, 2011. http://www.completecollege.org/docs/Three%20Policies%20to%20Reduce%20Time%20to%20Degree%20-%20Nate%20Johnson.pdf.

Johnson, Nate. “Three Strategies that Moved the Needle in Kentucky.” Postsecondary Analytics. May, 2014. http://10851-presscdn-0-44.pagely.netdna-cdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/Three-Strategies-that-Moved-the-Needle-in-Kentucky-formatted.pdf.

PELL GRANTS

Burke, Lindsey. “Pell Grant Increase Would Not Solve the College Cost Problem.” The Heritage Foundation. November 16, 2010. http://thf_media.s3.amazonaws.com/2010/pdf/wm3060.pdf.

Kelchen, Robert and Goldrick-Rab, Sara. “Accelerating College Knowledge: Examining the Feasibility of a Targeted Early Commitment Pell Grant Program.” University of Wisconsin-Madison. December 18, 2012. https://www.insidehighered.com/sites/default/server_files/files/Kelchen%20GoldrickRab%20Early%20Commitment%20Paper%20with%20summary.pdf.

COLLEGE PRESIDENTS

Atwell, Robert. “College Presidents, or CEO’s?” Highereducation.org. Summer 2004.
http://www.highereducation.org/crosstalk/ctbook/pdfbook/AtwellPresidentsBookLayout.pdf

Berman, Jillian. “These College Presidents Make over $1 Million (Their Students Go on to Earn a Lot Less).” Marketwatch. December8, 2015. http://www.marketwatch.com/story/these-college-presidents-make-over-1-million-their-students-go-on-to-earn-a-lot-less-2015-12-08.

Cook, Bryan J. “The American College President Study: Key Findings and Takeaways.” American Council on Education. Spring Supplement, 2012. http://www.acenet.edu/the-presidency/columns-and-features/Pages/The-American-College-President-Study.aspx.

Cotton, Raymond. “Myth: College & University Presidents are Overpaid.” American Council on Education. Spring, 2012.
http://www.acenet.edu/the-presidency/columns-and-features/Pages/Myth-College-and-University-Presidents-Are-Overpaid.aspx.

Krupnick, Matt and Marcus, Jon. “College Presidents Rack in Big Perks on Top of High Salaries.” Time. August 5, 2015. http://time.com/3936961/college-presidents-rake-in-big-perks-on-top-of-high-salaries.

Marcus, Jon. “How a Perks Binge Sweetens the Pay of Massachusetts College Chiefs.” The New England Center for Investigative Reporting (The Eye). March 31, 2016. http://eye.necir.org/2016/03/31/how-a-perks-binge-sweetens-the-pay-of-massachusetts-college-chiefs.

Montoya, Velma. “Getting Compensation Under Control.” Inside Higher Ed. June 5, 2006. https://www.insidehighered.com/views/2006/06/05/getting-compensation-under-control.

Mulhere, Kaitlin. “Paying a Public College President Big Bucks Doesn’t Always Pay Off for Students.” Money. August 11, 2015. http://time.com/money/3991273/public-college-president-pay.

Murphy, Kate. “College Presidents’ Pay Spurs Debate: What’s Enough?” Cincinnati.com. April 8, 2016. http://www.cincinnati.com/story/news/2016/04/07/college-presidents-pay-spurs-debate-whats-enough/81921028/.

Seltzer, Rick. “Presidential Perks.” Inside Higher Ed. June 16, 2016. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2016/06/16/public-university-presidents-seeing-big-gains-bonuses-other-perks.

WTOP Staff. “As Student Tuition and Debt Escalates, So Do College Presidents’ Salaries and Perks.” WTOP. July 12, 2015. http://wtop.com/local/2015/07/as-student-tuition-and-debt-escalates-so-do-college-presidents-salaries-and-perks/.

STUDENT LOANS

Anders, George. “Let Students’ Debts Vary with Life’s Ups and Downs.” LinkedIn. June 27, 2016. https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/what-student-loan-payments-varied-lifes-ups-downs-george-anders.

Calder, Amy. “Alford Foundation Will Pay College Debt of Those Who Commit to Maine-Based Companies.” Portland Press Herald. February 22, 2017. http://www.pressherald.com/2017/02/21/foundation-will-pay-college-debt-of-those-who-commit-to-maine-based-companies.

Douglas-Gabriel, Danielle. “United Negro College Fund: HBCU Students are Shouldering Heavy Debt Burdens.” The Washington Post. December 15, 2016. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/grade-point/wp/2016/12/15/united-negro-college-fund-hbcu-students-are-shouldering-heavy-debt-burdens.

Goldrick-Rab, Sara and Kendall, Nancy. “The Real Price of College.” The Century Foundation. March 3, 2016. https://tcf.org/content/report/the-real-price-of-college.

Hiltonsmith, Robert. “Small Loans, Big Risks: Major Consequences for Student Debtors.” Demos. January 10, 2017. http://www.demos.org/publication/small-loans-big-risks-major-consequences-student-debtors.

Houle, Jason N. and Berger, Lawrence M. “The End of the American Dream? Student Loan Debt and Homeownership Among Young Adults.” Third Way. June 2, 2015. http://www.thirdway.org/report/the-end-of-the-american-dream-student-loan-debt-and-homeownership-among-young-adults.

Kreighbaum, Andrew. “Small Agency, Big Impact.” Inside Higher Education. September 28, 2016. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2016/09/28/consumer-financial-protection-bureau-plays-outsize-role-regulator-profits-and-loan.

Las-Vegas Review-Journal. “Analysis Reveals Far More Students Behind on Their Loans Than Originally Reported.” January 22, 2017. http://www.reviewjournal.com/opinion/editorials/editorial-analysis-reveals-far-more-students-behind-their-loans-originally.

Marcus, Jon. “Policies to Help Students Pay for College Continue to Shift Toward Favoring the Rich.” The Hechinger Report. May 24, 2016. http://hechingerreport.org/policies-help-students-pay-college-continue-shift-toward-favoring-rich.

Najmabadi, Shannon. “$108 Billion in Student Debt Is Likely to Be Forgiven, Government Says.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. November 30, 2016. http://www.chronicle.com/blogs/ticker/108-billion-in-student-debt-likely-to-be-forgiven-government-says/115825.

Nasiripour, Shahien. “The U.S. Government Is Collecting Student Loans It Promised to Forgive.” Bloomberg. December 19, 2016. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/features/2016-12-19/the-u-s-government-is-collecting-student-loans-it-promised-to-forgive.

Nykiel, Teddy. “For Many Blacks, College Degrees Come with Outsized Debt.” Nerdwallet. February 8, 2017. http://www.nerdwallet.com/blog/loans/student-loans/why-student-loans-skyrocketing-for-black-students.

Sattelmeyer, Sarah and Denten, Brian. “How to Help Student Loan Borrowers Who Struggle to Repay.” The Pew Charitable Trusts. January 4, 2017. http://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/analysis/2017/01/04/how-to-help-student-loan-borrowers-who-struggle-to-repay.

Shireman, Robert and Habash, Tarig. “Have Student Loan Guaranty Agencies Lost Their Way?” The Century Foundation. September, 29 2016. https://tcf.org/content/report/student-loan-guaranty-agencies-lost-way.

UNCF. “Fewer Students, More Debt: Loan Debt Burdens Students at Historically Black Colleges & Universities.” 2016. http://images.uncf.org/production/reports/FINAL_HBCU_Loan_Debt_Burden_Report.pdf.

U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Education & the Workforce. “Letter to Secretary King Regarding Student Loan Borrowers.” November 28, 2016. http://democrats-edworkforce.house.gov/imo/media/doc/Borrowers%20Defense%20Letter.pdf.

Usher, Alex. “Does Student Debt Matter If You’re Not Going to Pay It Back?” Higher Education Strategy Associates. December 9, 2016. http://higheredstrategy.com/does-student-debt-matter-if-youre-not-going-to-pay-it-back.

Zuckerman, Mark. “Student Loan Borrower Relief Hiding in Plain Sight.” The Century Foundation. July 21, 2016. https://tcf.org/content/report/student-loan-borrower-relief-hiding-plain-sight.

STUDENT SCHOLARSHIPS

College Futures Foundation. “Strategic Scholarship Giving for Student Success: Insights and Approaches from 10 years of Grantmaking.” December, 2015. http://collegefutures.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Strategic-Scholarship-Giving-for-Student-Success_Dec2015Report_CollegeFutures.pdf.

Jackson, Orville. “New Study Shows Scholarships Can Boost College Enrollment Among Low-Income Students.” College Futures Foundation. June 30, 2015. https://collegefutures.org/2015/06/study-shows-scholarships-boost-college-enrollment-for-low-income-students.

Rose-Williams, Mara. “Kauffman Foundation Invests $79 Million in New College Scholarship Program.” The Kansas City Star. September 28, 2016. http://www.kansascity.com/news/local/article104802756.html.

STUDENT SUCCESS

Bott, Celeste. “Student Transfer Bill and Tax Credit Scholarships Move Forward in Missouri Senate.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch. April 11, 2017. http://www.stltoday.com/news/local/education/missouri-senate-advances-student-transfer-bill-tax-credit-scholarships/article_e90c7675-b252-55b7-b352-97ef66a943bf.html.

Butrymowicz, Sarah. “Remedial Classes Are a Huge Stumbling Block on the Way to a Degree. That’s Why This Community College Doesn’t Have Them.” The Hechinger Report. January 30, 2017. http://hechingerreport.org/remedial-classes-huge-stumbling-block-way-degree-thats-community-college-got-rid.

Butrymowicz, Sarah. “We Don’t Know How Many Students in College Aren’t Ready for College.” The Hechinger Report. January 30, 2017. http://hechingerreport.org/dont-know-many-students-college-arent-ready-college-matters.

Carnevale, Anthony P. “White Flight is Creating a Separate and Unequal System of Higher Education.” The Washington Post. December 7, 2016. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/grade-point/wp/2016/12/07/white-flight-is-creating-a-separate-and-unequal-system-of-higher-education.

Dobo, Nichole. “Students’ Worry: Education Technology Might Predict Failure Before They Have a Chance to Succeed.” The Hechinger Report. March 1, 2017. http://hechingerreport.org/students-worry-education-technology-might-predict-failure-chance-succeed.

Field, Kelly. “Closing Students’ Achievement Gaps at the National Level.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. February 16, 2017. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2017/03/22/ideas-improving-higher-educations-primary-role-work-force-development.

Harris, Adam. “Education Dept. Announces Move to Ease Burden of FAFSA Tool’s Absence.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. April 24, 2017. http://www.chronicle.com/blogs/ticker/education-dept-announces-moves-to-ease-burden-of-fafsa-tools-absence/117958.

Johnson, Eric. “Micro-Barriers Loom Large for First-Generation Students.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. October 30, 2016. http://www.chronicle.com/article/Micro-Barriers-Loom-Large-for/238218

Kolodner, Meredith. “Similar Students, Different Results: Where Black College Students Do Best, and Worst.” The Hechinger Report. March 1, 2017. http://hechingerreport.org/similar-students-different-results-look-black-college-students-best-worst.

Mangan, Katherine. “Incentives to Attend Private Colleges Could Save States Money & Raise Graduation Rates.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. April 14, 2017. http://www.chronicle.com/article/Incentives-to-Attend-Private/239801.

Marcus, Jon. “Colleges Confront the Simple Math That Keeps Students from Graduating on Time.” The Hechinger Report, February 17, 2016. http://hechingerreport.org/colleges-confront-the-simple-math-that-keeps-students-from-graduating-on-time.

Marcus, Jon. “How Failing to Get More Hispanics to College Could Drag Down All Americans’ Income.” The Hechinger Report. October 27, 2016. http://hechingerreport.org/failing-get-hispanics-college-drag-americans-income.

Mathewson Garcia, Tara. “District Says 24 Credits and a D Minus Average Aren’t Good Enough.” The Hechinger Report. April 17, 2017. http://hechingerreport.org/district-says-24-credits-d-minus-average-arent-good-enough.

Perry, Andre. “If Universities Did More to Help Poor Students, Maybe 40 Percent Wouldn’t Drop Out Before College Even Begins.” The Hechinger Report. April 18, 2017. http://hechingerreport.org/universities-help-poor-students-maybe-40-percent-wouldnt-drop-college-even-begins.

Perry, Andre. “Stop Condemning High Schools for College Graduation Rates.” The Hechinger Report. March 28, 2017. http://hechingerreport.org/stop-condemning-high-schools-college-graduation-rates.

Pingel, Sarah; Parker, Emily; and Sisneros, Lauren. “Free Community College: An Approach to Increase Adult Student Success in Postsecondary Education.” Education Commission of the States. November, 2016. http://www.ecs.org/ec-content/uploads/Free-Community-College-An-approach-to-increase-adult-student-success-in-postsecondary-education-.pdf.

Pratt, Timothy. “Colleges Offer Microgrants to Help Low-Income Students Pay Bills That Can Derail Them.” The Hechinger Report. February 17, 2016. http://hechingerreport.org/colleges-offer-microgrants-to-help-low-income-students-pay-bills-that-can-derail-them.

Research for Action. “Expanding the Knowledge Base on State-Level Postsecondary Outcomes-Based Funding.” June, 2017. https://www.researchforaction.org/projects/examining-outcomes-based-funding.

Selingo, Jeff. “The Solution to Millennial College Drop-Outs? More High School Seniors Should follow Malia Obama and Take a Gap Year.” Milken Institute Global Conference. May 2, 2016.
https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/solution-millennial-college-dropouts-more-high-school-jeff-selingo.

Shapiro, Doug; Dundar, Afet; Wakhunga, Phoebe Khasiala; Yuan, Xin; Nathan, Angel; and Hwang, Youngsik. “Completing College: A State-Level View of Student Attainment Rates.” National Student Clearinghouse Research Center. February 23, 2016.
https://nscresearchcenter.org/signaturereport10-statesupplement.

Shireman, Robert. “The Real Value of What Students Do in College.” The Century Foundation. February 25, 2016. http://apps.tcf.org/the-real-value-of-what-students-do-in-college.

Strikwerda, Carl. “Building a Network to Help First-Generation Students Succeed.” The Chronicle for Higher Education. December 1, 2016. http://www.chronicle.com/article/Video-Building-a-Network-to/238546.

Thomas, Miya. “Opinion: ‘TOPS Should Be for Low-Income Students.” The Hechinger Report. April 18, 2017.
http://hechingerreport.org/tops-low-income-students.

Trostel, Philip. “Beyond the College Earnings Premium. Way Beyond.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. January 29, 2017. http://www.chronicle.com/article/Beyond-the-College-Earnings/239013.

OTHER RELATED READING

Bipartisan Policy Center. “America’s Student Debt Explosion: Understanding the Federal Government’s Role.” March 14, 2017. https://bipartisanpolicy.org/library/americas-student-debt-explosion.

Blumenstyk, Goldie. “If You Have $45 Billion, What Would You Do to Improve Higher Education?” The Chronicle of Higher Education. November 30, 2016. http://www.chronicle.com/article/If-You-Had-45-Billion-What/238545.

Brown, Jessie and Kurzweil, Martin. “Instructional Quality, Student Outcomes, and Institutional Finances.” American Council on Education. 2017. http://www.acenet.edu/news-room/Documents/Instructional-Quality-Student-Outcomes-and-Institutional-Finances.pdf.

Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment. “For-Profit Colleges by the Numbers.” March, 2017. http://capseecenter.org/research/by-the-numbers/for-profit-college-infographic/.

Center for Urban Education. “Improving Postsecondary Attainment: Overcoming Common Challenges to an Equity Agenda in State Policy.” January, 2017. https://cue.usc.edu/files/2017/02/Overcoming-Challenges_Final_Online.pdf.

Fumia, D.; Nicolai, C.; Nafziger, M.; Hirsch, M.; and & Hoagland, C. “Interventions to Promote Postsecondary Attainment: A Review of the Evidence and Benefit-Cost Analysis.” Washington State Institute for Public Policy. 2016. http://www.wsipp.wa.gov/ReportFile/1660/Wsipp_Interventions-to-Promote-Postsecondary-Attainment-A-Review-of-the-Evidence-and-Benefit-Cost-Analysis_Report.pdf.

Goldrick-Rab, Sara; Richardson, Jed; and Hernandez, Anthony. “Hungry and Homeless in College.” Wisconsin Hope Lab. March, 2017. http://wihopelab.com/publications/hungry-and-homeless-in-college-report.pdf.

The Heritage Foundation. “Blueprint for Balance: A Federal Budget for Fiscal Year 2018.” March, 2018. http://thf-reports.s3.amazonaws.com/2017/BlueprintforBalance_AFederalBudgetforFY2018.pdf

Hesse, Tom. “State Spending on Higher Education Continues Upward Trend.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. February 6, 2017. http://www.chronicle.com/blogs/ticker/state-spending-on-higher-ed-continues-upward-trend/116722.

Marcus, Jon. “A Bid to Show Which Colleges Are Worth the Money Reveals Some Surprises.” The Hechinger Report. November 17, 2016. http://hechingerreport.org/bid-show-colleges-worth-money-reveals-surprises.

Marcus, Jon. “Half or More of Community College Students Struggle to Afford Food, Housing.” The Hechinger Report. March 15, 2017. http://hechingerreport.org/study-half-community-college-students-struggle-afford-food-housing.

National Student Clearinghouse Research Center. “Current Term Enrollment Estimates—Fall 2016.” Fall, 2016. https://nscresearchcenter.org/currenttermenrollmentestimate-fall2016/.

The Pew Charitable Trusts. “How Income Volatility Interacts with American Families’ Financial Security.” March 9, 2017. http://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/issue-briefs/2017/03/how-income-volatility-interacts-with-american-families-financial-security.

The Pew Charitable Trusts. “Key Findings from 50-State Assessment of Evidence-Based Policymaking.” January 31, 2017. http://www.routefifty.com/2017/01/key-findings-50-state-assessment-evidence-based-policymaking/135042/.

Quintana, Chris and Hatch, Joshua. “177 Private Colleges Fail Education Dept.’s Financial Responsibility Test.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. March 8, 2017. http://www.chronicle.com/article/177-Private-Colleges-Fail/239436.

Shaulis, Dahn. “Forecasting the U.S. College Meltdown.” LinkedIn. December 11, 2016. https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/predictive-models-us-college-meltdown-dahn-shaulis.

Shireman, Robert. “The For-Profit College Story: Scandal, Regulate, Forget, Repeat.” The Century Foundation. January 24, 2017. https://tcf.org/content/report/profit-college-story-scandal-regulate-forget-repeat.

Standard & Poor Global Credit Portal. “U.S. Not-for-Profit Higher Education 2017 Sector Outlook: Credit Quality Should Stay Stable Despite Headwinds.” January 17, 2017. https://www.globalcreditportal.com/ratingsdirect/renderArticle.do?articleId=1785184&SctArtId=413908.

Toner, Mark. “The Highly Endangered Higher Education Business Model (and How to Fix It).” American Council on Education. June 12, 2015. http://www.acenet.edu/the-presidency/columns-and-features/Pages/The-Highly-Endangered-Higher-Education-Business-Model.aspx.

Usher, Alex. “Books of the Year.” Higher Education Strategy Associates. December 15, 2016.
http://higheredstrategy.com/books-of-the-year/.

Wootton, Will. “The Real Reason Small Colleges Fail.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. June 8, 2016. http://chronicle.com/article/The-Real-Reason-Small-Colleges/236732/.

Zinshteyn, Mikhail. “Public Universities Have ‘Really Lost Our Focus.” The Hechinger Report. November 18, 2016. http://hechingerreport.org/public-universities-really-lost-focus.

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